Monday, August 24, 2020
Comprehensively, a complaint can be characterized as any discontent of disappointment with any part of the association. It very well may be genuine or nonexistent, real or absurd, evaluated or unvoiced, composed or oral, it must be in any case, discover articulation in some type of the other. Discontent or disappointment isn't a complaint. They at first discover articulation as a grumbling. At the point when a protest stays unattended to and the representative concerned feels a feeling of absence of equity and reasonable play, the disappointment develops and accept the status of complaint. Normally complaint identify with issues of translation of saw non-satisfaction of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s desire from the association. Wronged workers normally show insubordinate conduct. The complaint strategy can be isolated into two sections:- Ã¢â¬ ¢ A proper complaint redressal process and Ã¢â¬ ¢ A casual procedure of complaint dealing with All the representatives of the Corporation fall under the wide domain of the complaint redressal framework. Dealing with complaints There are three conventional stages in which any complaint can be reviewed. Each stage has a Ã¢â¬ËformÃ¢â¬â¢ which is numbered by whichever stage it has a place with. A complaint can be of any kind extending from issues with respect to advancement to release and excusal, and suspension however it is obligatory that the complaint ought to be business related and not close to home. It is necessitated that the complaint must fall under the accompanying classification to be viewed as one: 1. Luxuries 2. Remuneration 3. States of work 4. Progression of administration 5. Disciplinary activity . Fines 7. Leave 8. Health advantages 9. Nature of employment 10. Installments 11. Advancements 12. Wellbeing condition 13. Super Annuation 14. Supersession 15. Moves 16. Exploitation The rundown is characteristic and not extensive. The clear in light of the fact that or wellsprings of complaints may consistently be the genuine ones. There is requirement for more profound examination of the strategies, techniques, practices, structures and character elements in the associ ation to show up at the genuine reasons for complaints. Complaints come from the executives approaches and practices, especially when they need consistency, reasonable play and the ideal degree of adaptability. Complaints additionally may emerge on account of intra-individual issues of individual workers and association rehearses planned for strengthening and solidifying their bartering, quality. The nonattendance of legitimate two-path stream of correspondence can for sure be a fruitful ground for rearing complaints. Individual or Collective (Group) Grievances The International Labor Organization (ILO) characterizes a complaint as a protest of at least one specialists as for wages and stipends, states of work and understanding of administration, condition covering such zones as additional time, leave, move, advancement, position, work task and end of administration. The National Commission on Labor saw that Ã¢â¬Å"complaintsÃ¢â¬ influencing at least one individual specialists in regard of their pay installments, extra time, leave, move, advancement rank, work task and release would comprise complaints. It is essential to make a qualification between singular complaints and gathering complaints. On the off chance that the issue included identify with one or a couple of individual workers, it should be taken care of through a complaint system, however when general issues with arrangement suggestions and more extensive intrigue are included they become the topic for aggregate bartering. Purposes behind complaints Grievances happen for an assortment of reasons: Economic Wage obsession, wage calculation, additional time, extra Employees feel they are getting not as much as what they should get Working Environment Poor working conditions, damaged hardware and apparatus, instruments, materials. Management Disposition of the manager towards the worker saw thoughts of preference, nepotism, predisposition and so on. Work Group Strained relations or incongruence with peers. Sentiment of disregard, hindrance and exploitation. Work Organization Rigid and out of line rules, a lot of less work duty, absence of acknowledgment. Impacts of Grievances can have a few impacts which are basically unfavorable and counterproductive to hierarchical purposes. The unfriendly impacts include: a. Loss of enthusiasm for work and subsequent absence of good and responsibility b. Low quality of creation c. Low efficiency d. Increment in wastage and costs e. Increment in worker turnover f. Increment in the frequency of mishaps g. Indiscipline h. Turmoil, and so on. DoÃ¢â¬â¢s and DonÃ¢â¬â¢ts in Grievance Handling Ã¢â¬ Check Lists All the focuses are not appropriate to each case, however in the event that the manager knows about every one of them and watch them in his treatment of complaints, he will be set up for practically any sort of case that may emerge.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Practicum Project Goals, Objectives, and Justification - Term Paper Example My proposed practicum venture is execution of different accepted procedures identified with nursing tasks: intentional adjusting, bedside revealing, and multidisciplinary adjusting. Beginning July of 2015, day by day staff gatherings will be led in my association from 8am to 9am from Monday to Friday. The destinations of these day by day gatherings will be to outfit staff with abilities, information, and capability essential for the execution of best practices. In these gatherings, the method of reasoning for intentional adjusting, bedside detailing, and multidisciplinary adjusting as best practices will be built up, an enrollment advancement board involving medical attendant chiefs will be made to regulate usage of best practices, and furthermore proposals for execution will be set up. In light of past studies directed in my association and input from patients, the executives has construed low degrees of patient fulfillment. The present nursing procedures or strategies portrayed by unstructured rounds and poor revealing methods have essentially decreased patients encounters in my association. Lord and Gerald (2012) places that intentional adjusting, bedside revealing, and multidisciplinary adjusting are fundamental practices in overseeing patients desires. For example, King and Gerald (2012) takes note of that bedside revealing permits medical attendants to display sympathy and demonstrate worry to patients and could subsequently lift levels of patient fulfillment. In nursing viewpoint, King and Gerald (2012) calls attention to that multidisciplinary adjusting assists medical caretakers with picking up involvement with working in a multidisciplinary domain and thusly gain aptitudes and capabilities in working with and dealing with a different populace of staff, and furthermore create initiative capacities. Objective: In this undertaking, the student will make an execution plan for deliberate adjusting, bedside revealing, and multidisciplinary adjusting so as to improve patients encounters and assist staff with building up their initiative
Friday, July 17, 2020
The Imagined Favorite Books of 7 Literary Characters One of the things I love most when reading a book is when we get a glimpse of the characters reading or even get to glance over their bookshelves. What characters read can tell us so much about them in a flash: we learn more from Marianne Dashwoods love of romantic poetry than we do from Jane Austens more overt statements about her sentimentality, for instance. But, sometimes we dont get that glimpse into the reading lives of our favorite characters. Well, dont fret! Here for your reading edification are the books I imagine might be the faves of seven literary figures. (Since this is Book Riot and were making up the rules as we go along, Ive assumed everyone has access to a TARDIS or something and can get books from as recent as last week.) Without further ado: Anne Shirley (L. M. Montgomerys Anne of Green Gables): In her youth, Anne devoured fantasy novels like Ursula Le Guins Earthsea cycle. More recently, though, Anne has settled on a new favorite: Susan Swans The Wives of Bath, which made her question the true nature of her childhood friendship with Diana Barryâ"she tried to remember: had she ever seen Diana and Gilbert Blythe together?â"as well as how much she truly lived by her own rules, rather than those of men. Plus, its CanCon (even if it is set in Toronto). Philip Marlowe (Raymond Chandlers The Big Sleep and other novels): If theres one thing Philip Marlowe likes as much as a flask of whiskey, its a good mystery. He lives them by day, and reads them by night, at least until the bourbon kicks in and he dozes off on top of a dogeared mass market mystery bought at an airport bookstore. His personal favorite? Gone Girl by Gillian Flynn, which had Marlowe second-guessing himself at each twist and turn. Plus, it had a duplicitous dame at the center of a web of lies. Marlowe knows you can never trust a dame. Miss Havisham (Charles Dickens Great Expectations): Miss Havishams bookshelves are filled with foxed books and mildewed magazines from decades past, slowly decaying like the the wedding cake that still sits on her table. But, after a lifetime of misery, Miss Havisham knows who to blame: the goddamn patriarchy. So, every month or so she sends Estella off to the comic shop to pick up her copy of Bitch Planet by Kelly Sue DeConnick and Valentine De Landro. Miss Havisham loves the story of non-compliant women fighting back against the system, as well as the fantastic essays and interviews in the back matter. She loves the book so much, she has Estella carefully bag and board every issue to protect from ambient cake molds. Macbeth (William Shakespeares Macbeth): Macbeth loves stories about politics. He loves House of Cards, though he cant decide if he prefers the original UK version or the US remake. But his favoriteâ"both on screen and on paperâ"is George R. R. Martins A Song of Ice and Fire series because of its unexpected twists, epic battles, and political intrigue. Macbeth especially loves Cersei, who has a governing philosophy much like his own, and he has a really good feeling shell be the one sitting on the Iron Throne when its all over. (You know nothing, Macbeth.) Cosette (Victor Hugos Les MisÃ©rables): Lets be real: Cosettes life has not exactly been the most thrilling. She grew up as a servant, and just when it looked like things were about to get exciting, she was shuffled off to a convent. She did have a secret romance with Marius Pontmercy, but he totally left her behind when he went to fight at the barricades. And even now that shes more-or-less happily married, Cosettes life is still as boring as ever. She now reads primarily action-packed YA novels, through which she can live vicariously. Her current faves? Margaret Stohls Black Widow: Forever Red and its sequel Red Vengeance. Susan Pevensie (C.S. Lewiss Chronicles of Narnia): Susan is the one Pevensie child who broke free of Narnias embrace. When her siblings all returned to Narnia one last time (i.e., they died), Susan stayed behind and picked up the pieces (made the funeral arrangments). And why did she stay behind? Because shes interested in nothing now-a-days except nylons and lipstick and invitations. In other words, she grew up. (Terrible sin, I know.) Susan is now a professor of gender studies, and regularly falls asleep reading essays from Roxane Gayâs Bad Feminist. Iphigenia (Euripides Iphigenia at Aulis and Iphigenia in Tauris): Iphigenia has lived a bit too much for one person. She was nearly sacrificed to Artemis by her father, Agamemnon, only to be saved at the last moment by the goddess herself and whisked away to Crimea, where she was given the fun task of sacrificing any foreigners who happened to wander in. (The Greeks and their gods were a fun-loving, welcoming bunch.) As an immigrant herself, Iphigenia now reads a lot of novels about people who find themselves in distant, hostile lands, but her true love is Bernardine Evaristos novel in verse The Emperors Babe about the love life a Nubian immigrant in third century Londinium.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Throughout the history of the world, many pieces of literature have been written in which many messages can be extracted to help an individual understand themselves, as well as the world around them. Some of the most common examples of these texts are religious texts. According to Steven Ward, when discussing some of the most important religious texts in history, Ã¢â¬Å"...many of which had a major influence on the future course of history and many of which continue to shape the lives of millions of people worldwide.Ã¢â¬ The ways in which these texts influenced people in the past, as well as continue to influence people, are through the messages which they portray. Although religious tet are well known for their life altering messages, other texts can also have similar influences on people. One such text is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic. As said by Professor Jon Dorbolo of Oregon State University, Ã¢â¬Å"The Republic is considered by many to be Plato s masterwork. It certainly is on e of the most important texts of political theory.Ã¢â¬ While reading this text, several different messages begin to reveal themselves throughout the text. Some of the most important ideas that can be found within PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, include, humans are inherently good, people should perform tasks that they are good at, and his definition of justice. A multitude of messages can be withdrawn through a reading of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, one of which is his idea that humans are inherently good. While discussing recent developments inShow MoreRelatedThe Republic Of Plato s Republic865 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgovernments, ideal cities and even ideal rulers over the course of the semester, from AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Politics to the city described in the Melian dialogue, there is one that undoubtedly left a greater on me than the other- the city described in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic. From PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkably feminist ideals and vague sense of barebones socialism, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a l ot in this city that I hypothetically would throw my support behind. This is not to say that I think that this is the Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ option of the cities that weRead MoreThe Republic Of Plato s Republic893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic Plato aims to show from book 1 that justice has intrinsic value to itself, that it gives one a more satisfying pursuit of life. In book I, he retorts Thrasymachus account that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Initially this makes sense that if justice were defined by state law, then the entirety of nations, differing in laws, would be unified by the principle of rule by force, in which the strong create the law. They would do so to suit their own specific needsRead MorePlato And Plato s Republic1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe ancient Greek Philosopher Plato had an interest in finding the ideal government. In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, he discusses his ideas and views of how this ideal government would function. He believed that people are born into 3 different classes, with different responsibilities (Plato 415a). Only people in the Ã¢â¬Å"goldenÃ¢â¬ class were fit to rule. The most effective of these rulers would be philosophers, as they have knowledge of the good of the whole (Plato 473d). This system seems too perfect for me. IRead MoreComparing Plato s Republic, The Philosopher And Plato965 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn Plato s Republic, the philosopher is sitting having a discussion with his fellow peers and friends. During this conversation each character except Plato offers their opening and reasoning on the question, what is justice. For the majority of the book Plato outlines almost every aspect of his ideal city. Within this city Plato has set up many rules in order for the city to remain just. All the way from mating rituals to who should rule, virtually all factors have been thought of and serves a specificRead MoreThe Life Of Plato s The Republic1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThroughout the early books of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic, Socrates and his interlocutors Adeimantus, Polemarchus, Glaucon, Thrasymachus, and to a lesser extent Cephalus, explore what it means to be just and why justice is preferable to injustice. This topic was brought up in a monologue from Cephalus, who is an old patriarch that represents Greek tradition and thus offers a traditional view of j ustice. One by one, all of the interlocutors attempt to define justice, with Socrates disagreeing with at leastRead MoreAnalysis of PlatoÃ ´s Republic974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRepublic, perhaps PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous work focusing on justice and its values, is also home to SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ unique ideas and the challenges that he faces throughout his dialogues with other philosophers. Nevertheless, justice is not the only topic that Plato examines in his work. In the Republic, a simple discussion of the justice and the different characteristics of cities, escalates into a discussion about the souls of individuals. Socrates starts out by offering an agreement to the fact that sinceRead MoreComparing Plato s The Republic957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrulers change their ways as well as do what they can for the good of their people. In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic, the character Socrates argues with his peers about what makes the perfect society, as well as the perfect leader. According to Plato, the wisest choice for a ruler in a near perfect society is a philosopher, containing multiple important attributes. A wide variety of characteristics are covered, yet Plato seems to focus in on several key foundations. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s views on essential traits of a philosopherRead MorePlato s Republic As A Guide883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLet me tell you about Ã¢â¬Å"the perfect republic.Ã¢â¬ First, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll describe it to you using PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic as a guide. Then, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explain whether it is better to live in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s republic or in a timarchy, oligarchy, democracy, or a tyranny. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s books create an ideal city where there are the producers (farmers, craftsmen, etc.), the auxiliaries, also known as the warriors, and the guardians, they are the rulers of this city. Each of these groups must perform its job, and only that one job, and eachRead MoreAristotle s Ethics And Plato s The Republic892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesabout ancient Gods to more in depth works such as Ethics or The Bible. All of these works show serious teachings about multiple things such as justice, Gods, and philosophy. In my paper, I am going to discuss the concepts of Aristotle s Ethics and Plato s The Republic in order to hopefully achieve whether or not the ideas that have stuck out to me, are true or not. In the book Ethics, by Aristotle, plenty of concepts have stuck out to me, and made me think quite a bit. One of the ideas that stickRead MorePlato s The Republic And Aristotle933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic and AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s The Politics are two classic texts in ancient Greek political thought. Although Plato taught Aristotle, the two philosophers had differing viewpoints on many subjects, one of them being the purpose of political rule. Plato believed that the purpose of political rule is to allow for the manifestation of a just city where both the city and its citizens are in harmony due to a specialization of roles according to individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ natures, whereas Aristotle believed that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Keywords: Divorce mediator in Chicago, family mediator in Chicago, pre-decree divorce in Chicago, post-decree divorce mediation in Chicago Hiring a Divorce Mediator: A Cheaper Alternative to Chicago Divorce Court Resolving a case through the Chicago family court system is not only stressful, but also financially burdensome for the parties involved. In especially contested divorce cases, it is not unusual for attorneysÃ¢â¬â¢ fees and court costs to exceed $10,000. The parties in a divorce case may save thousands of dollars by using a Chicago divorce mediator instead. Chicago divorce mediators have been very successful in helping parties settle even the most contested cases. Why are divorces so expensive? First, it is wise to hire a divorce attorney to ensure that the case is proceeding as it should and that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are protected. Although the services of an attorney are valuable, they are also expensive. Family court attorneys charge hourly for their services, and these expenses add up quickly. In fact, most attorneys charge in excess of $200 per hour to represent an individual in family court. The assistance of other professionals may also become necessary. For example, if custody or visitation is contested, the court may appoint a Guardian ad Litem to conduct an investigation. Guardians charge hourly for their services as well, and the parties are responsible for these costs. Should the services of forensic accountants, child psychologists, or otherShow MoreRelated Divorce in america Essay660 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"It is easier to divorce my wife of 26 years than to fire someone I hired one week ago. The person I hire has more legal clout....than my wife of 26 years. Thats wrong.quot; --Judge Randall Hekman, President of the Michigan Family Forum There are, undoubtedly, a number of causes for divorce. Divorce used to be considered scandalous and immoral. This contributed to many marriages surviving despite strains. However, as divorce becomes more common, the more natural and expectable it seems. The numberRead MoreHow Divorce Is Affected By The Separation940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDivorce is never an easy subject, and is hurtful despite the specific conditions. When going through a divorce it is very important to know the effects that it can have on children. Divorce, in most cases, depending on the circumstance, will have a negative effect on children. Some of the results after a divorce can leave a child in short or long term situations. Adults tend to recover and move on to a new relationship, but the effects on children can be more long term (Ã¢â¬Å"AreÃ¢â¬ ). More and more parentsRead MoreSeparation Of A Child s Parents1287 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEach year, over one million American children suffer from divorce in thei r families (Fagan). Divorce causes lasting damage to all involved, but especially children. Many people assumed that what is good for the mother and father is good for the child. But now, tremendous amounts of research have been done on divorce and children. All the research points out one hard truth and that is that kids suffer when mom and dad get a divorce (focus on the family). Separation of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents puts the childRead MoreEssay on Violence is the Enemy of TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Youth884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbe explored. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth has an overwhelming burden to bear. Violence has increased in society and youth often are exposed to situations that end in violent acts. The family dynamic has changed significantly in the last 40 years: with increased divorce, single parent households, and blended families the variability for children to be unsupervised allows for increased exposure to violence as well as expressing violence. Societal acceptance of violent acts ha s also opens the door for children to faceRead MoreThe Effects Of Divorce On Children And Teens1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDivorce is one of the most common happenings in the world experienced by children. Most children go through different adjustments to become comfortable with the fact that their parents are not together anymore. Children of divorced parents are prone to lifelong effects. Seventy-five to eighty percent of children have divorced parents and twenty-five percent of those children have serious social, emotional, or psychological problems for the rest of their life. Most adults think that it is best forRead MoreEssay about The Effects of Divorce in American Culture1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe effects of divorce on the American culture are immense. Social scientists have been studying these effects for many years now. The studies are continuing to confirm that the climbing rate of divorce in the American culture is hurting the society and also frequently devastating th e lives of many American children. More often than not people decide to get a divorce before they really think about the effects of divorce. People usually decide to get a divorce based on emotion rather than logic whichRead MoreEffects of Divorce on Children1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDivorce: Effects on Children Divorce has become an unquestionable remedy for the miserably married. Currently, the United States has the highest divorce rate in the world. Every year in the US approximately one million children experience divorce which, is about one in every three children (Amato 21). The effects of divorce can be tremendously painful for both children and adults. Children of divorce are more likely to suffer from behavioral, social, academic, and psychological problems than childrenRead MoreMarriage, Divorce and Remarriage1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMarriage, Divorce, and Remarriage The Present, Past, and Future Tenses of Our Lives Marriage is possibly one of the hardest tasks that a man and a woman can try to accomplish in their life (Curran 2011). They have to bring their conflicts, needs, desires, and challenges into a melodious whole. God designed marriage to be permanent. Ã¢â¬Å"I hate divorce,Ã¢â¬ says the Lord God of Israel, (Mal.2:16 NIV). Tennessee Code - Volume 6A, Title 36, Sections 36-4-101 and 36-4-103 states there are fourteenRead MoreEssay about How Divorce is Affecting the American Culture1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe effects of divorce on the American culture are immense. Social scientists have been studying these effects for many years now. The studies are continuing to confirm that the climbing rate of divorce in the American culture is hurting the society and also frequently devastating the lives of many American children. There are many areas in which divorce has a negative effect in the life of a child or an adult. Many of these effects also directly correlate to the effect o n a society. HoweverRead MoreCold Blood s Accuracy Of Perry Smith s Childhood1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the movie. The movie In Cold Blood gives a basic understanding of Perry s Childhood but does not accurately tell go into detail the life he had as a child, or does it explain the relationship between his mother and father and why there was a divorce. In Cold Blood, a film directed by Richard Brooks. In the movie In Cold Blood It shows great representation of Perry himself and does an okay job at giving background story and even his childhood. In the movie Perry talks about his childhood in
ECE 6613: Broadband Access Networks The Future of IPTV and IP-Video Ji Hwan Kim Georgia Institute of Technology 325050 Georgia Tech Station Atlanta, GA 30332 AbstractÃ¢â¬â This paper describes the various IPTV architectures and components, which enables large-scale integration of current and future IPTV network. IPTV technologies are transforming how we perceive TV services today and global television industry as whole. However, there is pressing need for improvement on IPTV side to meet the Quality of Experience that is equal to or better than traditional TV services. We will write a custom essay sample on The Future of Iptv and Ip-Video or any similar topic only for you Order Now In recent years, we have seen tremendous growth in Information Technology industry with the emergence of smart phone. Various new technologies are in its development to meet the demand of higher data rate, reliable data transfer, and readily available resources with distributed cloud servers to improve quality of service to the customers. With growing number of smart phone users, IPTV service has become ever more popular in telecommunication companies to provide streaming videos through the different new infrastructures. The biggest competitors in IPTV service in the U. S. are Verizon FioS (FTTP) and ATT U-verse (FTTN) providing triple-play bundle service to the customer. In this paper, we are going to discuss IPTV service architecture difference of Verizon FiOS, ATT U-verse, Cable Company, and Netflix as well as current IPTV research and development to increase quality of experience through multicast and cloud computing. Also we will analyze some of the emerging IPTV application in the future. Key Words Ã¢â¬â Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), Verizon FiOS, ATT U-verse, Multicast Introduction TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s IPTV services IPTV technologies are transforming how we perceive TV services today and global television industry as whole. It is a collection of modern technologies in computing, networking, and storage combined to deliver high quality television contents through IP network. It is becoming a platform which changing how we access information and entertainment. In recent years, we have seen tremendous growth in video and networking technologies with the emergence of smart phone. Various new technologies are in its development to meet the demand of higher data rate, reliable data transfer, and readily available resources, distributed cloud servers, to improve quality of service to the customers. The figure below  is an example of IPTV broadband network inside a home. [pic] Fig. 1. Diagram of IPTV Broadband Network Inside Home. With IPTV service, video contents are not only limited to the TV but can utilize in multiple platforms to enjoy video content anywhere, anytime, and anydevice. IPTV alter the way the customer consume video content like personal video recorders have done and lets customer have complete control of their entertainment experience to a next level. [pic] Fig. 2. U. S. Multichannel Video Subscriber Census Above is a figure of U. S. Multichannel Video Subscriber Census by SNL Kagan . In 2011, the cable industry lost 1. 8 million video subscribers whereas IPTV providers gained 1. 6 million. This shows that IPTV industry is gaining market share on video content provider and it is expected to grow even more. Cable TV delivers entire line-up of broadcast content channels all the time which requires huge amount of bandwidth being delivered all the time into the home and cable companies are moving toward IPTV delivery services to reduce bandwidth on their infrastructure. IPTV architecture is very different in that it only delivers the single channel that is requested by the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s individual TV. Therefore, IPTV architecture can greatly reduce bandwidth by only providing specific request from the consumer at any given time . [pic] Fig. 3. Expected Growth in IPTV subscribers. However, there is pressing need for improvement on IPTV side to meet the Quality of Experience that is equal to or better than traditional TV services. To provide great quality of experience in IPTV requires almost no packet loss, delay variation of 200ms, and delivery of no more than one perceivable error during a two-hour movie. This constrains and requirements puts heavy burden on service provider to provide reliable and lossless IPTV to customers and requires video admission control. The paper is outlined as follows. In Section II, we overview the different IPTV system and architecture exist today and how service providers are planning to improve their IPTV infrastructure. In Section III we will discuss the multicast protocol in depth and current research from Cisco to deliver IPTV service with multicast protocol. In Section V, we will discuss some of the potential future application that can be seen in near future with IPTV service. IPTV System and architecture IPTV networks generate their video contents for transmission using many clustered components collectively called headends. There are three common types of IPTV headends to meet national, regional and local content distribution requirements. Super Headends (SHE) receives and digests content on the national level typically from satellites. After processing and encoding, the SHEs distribute the national content to video hub offices (VHO) over a core IP/MPLS network. VHOs aggregate national, regional, and local content with the on-demand services, and serve metropolitan areas with a population of between 100,000 to 500,000 homes. VHOs are connected to video switching offices (VSO) over metro aggregation networks. VSOs distributed the IPTV streams to the customer premises over access network. The IPTV architecture is shown in Figure. 4. [pic] Fig. 4. End-to-End IPTV Network Architecture. The most conventional transport technique for IPTV is to multicast UDP/IP packets with MPEG-2 video compression scheme. The newer standard video architectures use RTP protocol which can provide error repair and stream monitoring unlike UDP protocol. IPTV service have slower channel change time compare to CATV service provider since all the TV channels are broadcasted simultaneously whereas IPTV needs to request certain channel from the provider. IPTV zapping time is affected by several factors such as Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) signaling delay of leaving and joining multicast group, MPEG decoding delay, program specific information (PSI) including program association table (PAT) and program map table (PMT) acquisition delay, random access point (RAP) delay, conditional access system (CAS) key acquisition delay, and de-jittering buffer delay in the STB . More detail of video admission control in IPTV multicast protocol will be discussed in Section III. IPTV service over a packet-switched network demands near zero packet loss and limited jitter. Thus, it is often necessary to enforce traffic management and admission control in IPTV network by sufficient provisioning and resource allocation . More detail on resource allocation through retransmission server to improve IPTV will be discussed in Section III. Telco companies are embracing the IPTV technology since this will open up huge market share with Cable TV companies. Telco companies have been delivering packet-based IP traffic over their xDSL technology for many years and utilizing their existing technology to move to IPTV is a natural choice for them. However, there are great roadblocks to deploy IPTV over DSL which primarily concerned with quality of experience that is equal or better than traditional CATV. Below is the figure of IPTV infrastructure for Telco companies . [pic] Fig. 5. Telco End-to-End IPTV Network Architecture. The primary difference in Telco companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ architecture can be seen in red cloud shown in Fig. 5. Digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) is located in environmentally controlled vaults or huts. It is also called video ready access devices (VRAD), which is placed on lawns or easements or a common space in apartment building. DSLAM often serves 100 to 200 residential gateways (RGs) that are attached to the outside of a residence and various techniques are used to transport signal between DSLAM and RG. Very high-bit-rate DSL (VDSL) for copper and broadband passive optical network (BPON) and gigabit PON (GPON) for giber transport. This metro access segment uses a hub-and-spoke architecture . Cable companies have been utilizing Hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC), combine optical fibers and coaxial cables, network since early 1990s to provide broadband internet access over existing cable TV system and its been employed this protocol globally and Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) is the international standard for developing equipment for HFC networks. Cable IPTV architecture is able to evolve from the traditional CATV with simple changes by adding few more components: cable modem (CM), cable modem termination system (CMTS), and a PacketCable Multimedia (PCMM). The cable companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ architecture is shown in the figure below. [pic] Fig. 6. Cable Company Network Architecture. The CMTS and CM can provide a bidirectional IP over DOCSIS transport in the HFC network. CMTS can provide media access control (MAC) and physical protocol layer (PHY) in a single device by integrate with DOCSIS however, cable industry is moving toward a modular CMTS (M-CMTS). M-CMTS separates MAC and PHY layers to improve the scalability of DOCSIS transport. The CMTS manages DOCSIS QAM switching and provides QoS over the DOCSIS channel as well as manages residential CMs by dynamically load-balancing CMs among DOCSIS downstream channels to optimize traffic flow. PCMM policy server in DOCSIS networks defines admission control QoS policies by using session managers to request and reserve bandwidth for CMTS to enforce these QoS policies. A. Verizon Fios In 2004, Verizon began deployment of its Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) access network. The initial deployment used the ITU-T G. 983 BPON standard and in 2007, Verizon began using equipment with the ITU-T G. 84 G-PON standard. Fig. 6 below is VerizonÃ¢â¬â¢s BPON FTTP architecture diagram describing the connection between Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Terminal (ONT). OLT provides interface between Core network with voice, data, and video signals and Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) boosts the [pic] Fig. 6. Verizon BPON FTTP architecture optical video signal. ONT performs t he optical to electrical signal conversion and provide the data, voice, and video service to the subscriber. Wavelength division multiplexer (WDM) combines the three wavelengths onto a single fiber for transmission to the premises. 310nm wavelength is used for upstream traffic and for downstream, 1550nm (broadcast video) and 1490nm (data and voice) are being utilized. Fiber Distribution Hub (FDH) cabinet contains 1Ãâ"32 passive optical splitters. Each subscriber is connected to a dedicated fiber between FHD and the premises. BPON delivers 622 Mbps downstream and 155 Mbps upstream per PON for voice and data through ATM. FiOS provide over 600 channels between 50 to 870 MHz RF signal transmitted over the 1550nm wavelength. [pic] Fig. 7. Verizon FiOS RF spectrum GPON physical architecture is same as BPON however it provides significant improvements over BPON in bandwidth. GPON can provide 2. 5 Gbps downstream and 1. 2 Gbps upstream for data and voice and in addition, GPON have different transport by implementing Ethernet based protocol to transfer data instead of ATM. The comparison of BPON and GPON is shown in Table 1 below. [pic] Verizon uses Multimedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) technology to provide data communication inside the resident. MoCA is installed in the ONT, Broadband Home Router, and set-top boxes and permits two-way IP data transmission over coax. By using MoCA, Verizon can reduce installation cost by using existing coax cable instead providing Ethernet cables to connect devices in the resident. [pic] Fig. 7. Verizon FiOS MoCA Verizon is using two main FTTP deployment schemes, the FTTP Overlay architecture and the FTTP Full Build. The [pic] Fig. 8. FTTP Overlay and Full Build Deployment Choice between two deployment scenarios is dependent on the specific deployment area and the likely take rates. In the FullBuild architecture, the fiber is deployed to each house and each subscriber gets an ONT together. In Overlay architecture, fiber is available to pass all homes and business in a distributed area but only a small percentage of homes and businesses are connected to and served with FTTP . B. ATT U-Verse In 2006, ATT launched its U-Verse IPTV service (project lightspeed), comprising a national head-end and regional video-serving offices. ATT offered over 300 channels in 11 cities through FTTN technology. ATT utilizes copper pair to connect VRAD to Residential Gateway (RG) using xDSL technology. With U-verse, it can provide 25Mbps to home approximately 2500~4000 feet away. By using MPEG-4 H. 264 compression technique, U-verse can provide 4 simultaneous TV stream (2HD and 2 SD TV), 2 VoIP and POTS service to the resident. Figure below is U-verse architecture. [pic] Fig. 9. U-verse FTTN Architecture The DSL technology at its beginning stages could only deliver 6 Mbps but now with ADSL2+ and VDSL, it can provide much higher bandwidth over a single copper pair. [pic] Fig. 10. xDSL technology. The various techniques are being implemented to improve the bandwidth and physical loop length capabilities of different DSL technologies. Bonding copper cable pairs can provide higher bandwidth by terminating 2 copper cable pairs together to act as 1 larger copper pair. ADSL2+ and VDSL is bonded together to provide higher bandwidth. VDSL can provide higher throughput than ADSL2+ however, it can only support short loop length. There is newest xDSL technology standard VHDSL2, which approved in February 2006, can provide bandwidth of 200 Mbit/s but maximum distance of 300 meters. xDSL technology goal is to provide VDSL speed with longer loop length . The various different xDSL technology characteristics are shown in table below. TABLE 2. xDSL SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS. pic] ATT typically uses mix of xDSL technologies to deliver broadband service to subscribers. Mainly ADSL2+ from the central office and VDSL2 from the VRAD through FTTN fiber based technology. C) Cable TV to IPTV Transition Cable companies are the largest subscription television service provider in the world and can easily integrate IPTV services to their existing infrastructure. In cable TV infrastructure, there are two main categories of digital video services: broadcast and on-demand Broadcast service defined as a service in which one copy of a program is sent to all subscriber in a broadcast manner. Broadcast services include : Ã¢â¬â Digital broadcast- Encoded/compressed programs are sent to a subscriberÃ¢â¬â¢s STB, where they are decoded/uncompressed for playback on a TV. All programs are transmitted regardless of which programs are currently watched by the customer Ã¢â¬â Switched digital video (SDV) Ã¢â¬â SDV is similar to digital broadcast but only requested programs are sent to a subscriber group. This group typically consists of all the subscribers served by HFC node which can serve range o 125 to 2000 subscribers. SDV is first two-way communication with subscriber for program selection. The digital broadcast architecture begins with the polling the content in the headend from satellite and terrestrial sources. The acquired content is generally forward to a multifunction media processing device performing following three functions: Ã¢â¬â Statmux Ã¢â¬â performs statistical time-devision multiplexing of real-time video content from various sources. Ã¢â¬â Groomer Ã¢â¬â adjust rates of content into a maximum bandwidth and limiting the rate of video burst Ã¢â¬â Splicer Ã¢â¬â inserts ads into programming breaks as needed for a regional market. [pic] Fig. 11. CATV Architecture. The content is then forwarded across IP transport network to an IP-enabled quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM), where video content is encrypted and forward to STB for the customer. An out-of-band (OOB) channel provides the STB with basic tuning information, basic tuning information, decryption keys, software upgrade, and other communications. Switched Digital Video (SDV) was designed as a cost-effective method to expand bandwidth capacity in a way different than plant upgrades or better video compression method. Traditional digital broadcast sends all the channels into the HFC network but with SDV, programming terminates at the headend (VHO) or hub (VSO) and does not send channel unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s requested. When an SDV program is selected, tuning software in the receiver sends an upstream message and SDV session manager receives the quest and maps the program to a frequency within the allocated pool. If the program is already being viewed within the same subscriber group, the task is as simple as reusing the existing session frequency information. On-Demand service is an interactive service where a requested video program is streamed to one subscriber. All on-demand content is encoded/compressed and stored on server to be received by individual subscriberÃ¢â¬â¢s request. On-demand services include following: Ã¢â¬â Video on demand- Content is stored on a server and subscriber views a list of titles and requests to view a specific title. The VOD system authorizes and streams the requested content to the requested user. Ã¢â¬â Network-based personal video record (nPVR) Ã¢â¬â this service is like home PVR except the content is on the service provider network. A subscriber uses the STB to record specific content to record and watches content at a user-chosen time which is same manner as VOD. pic] Fig. 12. Integrated Cable Video Service Architecture Cable IPTV architecture needs three newly added components to enable IPTV to their customers: Cable modem (CM), Cable Modem Termination system (CMTS), and a PacketCable Multimedia (PCMM). [pic] Fig. 13. Cable IPTV Architecture The CMTS and CM provide a two-way IP over DOCSIS transpo rt in the HFC network. Cable Companies are moving toward M-CMTS technology, which can separate, MAC and PHY layer to improve scalability of DOCSIS transport unlike traditional CMTS where both MAC and PHY layer in a single device. In order to utilize IPTV in Cable company network, IP STBs or other IPTV capable devices must be able to receive video over IP transport and remove network delay variation. Major Cable companies are finding hybrid STBs as attractive solution for IPTV. The Hybrid STB with an embedded cable modem can receive video from either IP path or traditional QAM/RF transport path, which is good strategy to migrate from traditional cable architecture to IPTV. Admission control in Cable IPTV can be applied to both the IP network from the video source to the CMTS, and the HFC network between the QAM and the CM through PCMM policy server. Policy server in DOCSIS networks defines QoS policies for CMTS to enforce them. Admission control signaling can be categorized as off-path and on-path. Off-path is when the control path is different from the data path and on-path signaling traverses the data path for bandwidth requests that use the commonly selected Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP). In order to provide better IPTV services to the customers, Cable industry must improve bandwidth efficiency in the last mile. The biggest recent innovation to optimize available bandwidth is SDV but additional solutions are becoming more important as cable company transition to IPTV service. QAM sharing holds great promise of improving bandwidth efficiency without the need of major change in their current infrastructure. However, there are several factors contribute to the bandwidth efficiency of QAM sharing: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Even if SDV and VOD have the same peak hours, a viewer is likely to receive only one service at a time. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The gain of QAM sharing comes from the statistical advantage of a bigger QAM pool, shared by two or more services. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Differing peak hours of DOCSIS and video service contribute additional gains. For instance, the spectrum allocated for DOCSIS commercial services during the day may by reallocated for video services in the evening. Dynamic QAM sharing is being realized through new technologies and standards for the following reasons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The DOCSIS M-CMTS architecture, which separates the DOCSIS MAC and PHY protocol layers. This allows the PHY layer (specifically the QAMs) to be dynamically allocated and de-allocated. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The recent emergence of universal QAMs, which can function as either MPEG video QAMs or DOCSIS QAMs. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Standardization in edge QAM resource management. pic] Fig. 14. Dynamic QAM Sharing with M-CMTS Architecture ERMI specifies several interfaces to an edge resource manager (ERM). The ERM is a plat- form that manages and leases QAM channel bandwidth for all applications: Ã¢â¬ ¢ ERMI-1 is an interface for edge devices to register QAM channels to the ERM and notify the ERM of any QAM failures or state changes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ ERMI-2 is an interface for the ERM to bind the QAM resources from an edge device to the resource allocation request. Ã¢â¬ ¢ ERMI-3 is an interface for the M-CMTS core to allocate QAM-channel andwidth from the ERM. Variable bit rate (VBR) video provides considerable bit saving compared to constant bit rate (CBR) video. WITH VBR statistical multiplexing, Cable Company can save as much as 30 percent of bandwidth by just varying the output data per time segment. Recently, DOCSIS 3. 0 was release to compete with Telco companies FTTx deployment and it is redefined the communication between cable modem (CM) located at subscriber premises and cable modem termination system (CMTS) at cable service providerÃ¢â¬â¢s network headend. DOCSIS 3. are design to allow channel bonding to boost up network throughput and number of bonded channel is usually 4 or 8. With DOCSIS 3. 0 standard, it can provide 300 Mbps download and 100 Mbps upload . TABLE 3. DOCSIS 3. 0 Standards and Characteristics [pic] D) Netflix OTT IPTV System and Architecture Netflix is the leading provider of OTT on-demand internet video streaming in the US and Canada with more than 23 million subscribers. Netflix can stream out HD quality video with average bitrate of 3. 6 Mbps and it is single largest source of Internet traffic in the US by consuming 29. % of peak download traffic. [pic] Fig. 15. Netflix Architecture Designing large-scale network infrastructure to support fast growing video streaming platform with high availability and scalability is technically challenging. The Majority Netflix infrastructure used to be hosted in its own datacenter but recently resorted to the use of cloud services, Content Distribution Networks (CDNs), and other public computing services. Amazon AWS cloud is being utilized by replacing its in house IT infrastructure along with SimpleDB, S3 and Cassandra for file storage. Video streaming is distributed out of multiple content distributed networks (CDNs), UltraDNS, and a public DNS service is used as its authoritative DNS servers. Microsoft Silverlight is employed as the video playback platform for Netflix desktop users and Netflix manages to build its IPTV with little infrastructure of its own. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Netflix data centers Ã¢â¬â Netflix uses its own IP address space for the host name www. netflix. com. This server primarily handles registration of new user accounts and captures payment information and redirect users to movies. etflix. com or signup. netflix. com. This server does not interact with the client when handling movie request and playback. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Amazon Cloud service Ã¢â¬â Most of the Netflix servers are served from various Amazon cloud services and key functions are content ingestion, log recording/analysis, DRM, CDN routing, user sign-in, and mobile device support Ã¢â¬ ¢ Content Distribution Networks (CDNs) Ã¢â¬â Netflix utilize multiple CDNs to deliver the video content to the subscriber. The encoded and DRM protected videos are stored in Amazon cloud and copied to CDNs. The three main CDNS are Akamai, LimeLight, and Level-3. These three servers provide same quality level content to all the subscribers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Player Ã¢â¬â Netflix employ Silver light to download, decode and play Netflix movies on desktop web browser. There are different players for mobile phones and other devices such as Wii, PS3, Xbox, Roku, etc. Netflix utilize Dynamic Streaming over HTTP (DASH) protocol for streaming. In DASH, each video is encoded at several different quality levels and is divided into small chunks. The client requests one video chunk at a time via HTTP. With each download, it measures the received bandwidth and runs a rate determination algorithm to determine the quality of the next chunk request. It allows the player to freely switch between different quality levels depending on the bandwidth of subscriber. TABLE 4. KEY NETFLIX HOSTNAME [pic] Netflix Client player have many functions to improve its performance and quality of experience (QOE). Netflix video streaming is controlled by instruction in a manifest file, which Silverlight client downloads. This metafile provides the DASH player metadata to conduct the adaptive video streaming capability. It is client-specific and generated according to each clientÃ¢â¬â¢s playback and bandwidth capability. It is in XML format and contains several key pieces of information including list of the CDNs, location of trickplay data, video/audio chunk URLs for multiple quality level, and timing parameters such as time-out interval, polling interval and other data to provide QoE to users. Manifest files ranks CDNs to indicate which CDNS are preferred for content delivery. Trickplay is achieved by downloading a set of thumbnail images for periodic snapshot during network congestion . IPTV multicasting protocol In early IP networks, a packet could be sent either in unicast (single device) or broadcast (all devices). With multicast, single transmission for a group of devices is possible. Multicast transmissions enable efficient communication between groups of devices by allowing Data to be transmitted to a single multicast IP address and received by the group of interest. Multicast over IPTV network presents many challenges related to reservation of resource and maintaining quality of experience (QoE). Backbone can be built based on IP/MPLS and the routers can be enabled for multicast using IGMP protocols. Before going into detail of multicast protocol in IPTV, we will discuss multicast protocol in detail and how it can help IPTV through multicast mechanism. TABLE 5. IGMPV2 AND IGMPV3 MAJOR DIFFERENCE [pic] The IGMP was defined to allow a host computer to select a stream from a group of multicast streams a user request. Following is the basic functions IGMP protocol: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Join: an IGMP host indicates that it wants to receive information from a multicast group to become a member. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leave: An IGMP host indicates that it no longer wishes to receive information from a multicast group. Query: An IGMP router can ask the hosts which groups they are member of. This is done to verify a JOIN/LEAVE request or to look for error conditions. Queries maybe be: o Specific Query: Asks whether the host is a member of a specific multicast group o General Query: Asks the host to indicate all groups that it belongs to Ã¢â¬ ¢ Membership Report: an IGMP host tells the IGMP host what group it belong s to. This report can be either: o Solicit Membership Report: Sent in response to a QUERY o Unsolicited Membership Report: initiated by the client. In the IPTV network, each broadcast TV channel is an IP multicast group. The subscriber changes the channel by leaving one group and joining a different group. IGMPv1 is not suitable for IPTV because it does not include an explicit Ã¢â¬Å"LeaveÃ¢â¬ capability. The client will continue to receive all requested stream until the multicast router issues next query. The standard for IGMPv2 and IGMPv3 major difference is shown in Table 5. IGMPv2 supports Any Source Multicast (ASM) networks and which allows host to specify which multicast group it wishes to join. Most deployed IPTV clients supports IGMPv2. The Major enhancement in IGMPv3 is that it allows Support Specific Multicast (SSM). Host can specify the source address it wants to listen to. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s basic IGMP operation involving two devices: Ã¢â¬ ¢ IGMP host (client or STB) Ã¢â¬â issues messages to join or leave a multicast group. The client also responds to queries from the multicast router. Ã¢â¬ ¢ IGMP router Ã¢â¬â responds to the join and leave messages to determine if multicast groups should be forward out an interface. Periodic queries are used to discover from error conditions and verify requests. The IGMP router receives multicast groups either through the use of a multicast protocol such as PIM or static flooding. It is the termination point for IGMP messages and does not send any IGMP information to its upstream neighbors. [pic] Fig. 16. DSL Access Network IPTV Service In xDSL IPTV architecture, the subscriber initiates channel change requests and responds to status inquiries. The Routing Gateway (RG) at the subscriberÃ¢â¬â¢s site and DSLAM aggregate traffic from multiple subscribers in order to act on request from the STB. However, IGMP networks were not originally designed to have networking equipment between IGMP client and the IGMP routers. This creates some challenges to the multicast implementation: Ã¢â¬â Excessive multicast traffic: When delivering high bandwidth IPTV over broadband network, it is important to ensure that IPTV channels are forward only to those subscriber currently viewing them since bandwidth is scarce. If the intermediate devices are unaware of IGMP flows then all multicast traffic is broadcast out all ports Ã¢â¬â Excessive IGMP traffic: Extra bandwidth is consumed as IGMP flows are broadcast to across the network. A single STB IGMP request can result in responses from thousands of IGMP peer clients. Ã¢â¬â Excessive time to Leave a group: With small spare bandwidth in broadband networks, Leave request often must be processed before additional join request can be served. To mitigate above challenges, several techniques are proposed and developed in intermediary devices: Local Replication, Proxy routing, Proxy Reporting, and Immediate Leave. Local replication, IGMP snooping from DSLAM, allows DSLAM to inspect incoming IGMP Join and Leave request and take appropriate action. If the channel being requested to view is already being received at the DSLAM, it will replicate the stream and forward to the subscriber. The DSLAM builds a table to track which channel are being forwarded to each port. [pic] Fig. 17. DSLAM with IGMP Snooping Proxy routing works by allowing intermediate device (DSLAM) takes active role of terminating all IGMP flows. This makes DSLAM to act as IGMP host and responds to all incoming requests. DSLAM will recreate the IGMP request and use its own IP address as source. The major benefit of proxy routing is scaling since router is not aware of individual subscribers. [pic] Fig. 18. IGMP Proxy Routing Proxy Reporting reduces the number of IGMP packets flowing across the network by selectively dropping IGMP packets that are not need to be forwarded. The Proxy Reporting can be subdivided to two categories: Query Suppression and Report Suppression. Query Suppression reduces traffic between the DSLAM and the subscriber premises by having the DSLAM intercept and respond to IGMP queries sent by the router. DSLAM will never send a specific query to any clients and forward general queries only to those client receiving at least one multicast group. [pic] Fig. 19. Query Suppression. Report Suppression reduces traffic from DSLAM to the router by having DSLAM aggregate the response. The DSLAM can intercept IGMP reports coming from STB and forwards a summarized version to the IGMP router only when it is necessary. There are two categories of reports. Unsolicited membership reports are forward when first subscriber joins a multicast group or last subscriber leaves a multicast group. This tells router to begin or stop sending channel to this DSLAM. Solicited membership reports are forward once per multicast group. The DSLAM will aggregate multiple responses together into a single membership report to save bandwidth. [pic] Fig. 20. Report Suppression Immediate leave alleviate IPTV challenge to change channel rapidly. The standard IGMP Leave operation for channel change is as follow: Ã¢â¬â The STB sends a request to leave one multicast group Ã¢â¬â Router responds by issuing Membership Query to confirm the request. The STB responds with a Membership Report which does not include the multicast group By implementing immediate leave, STB can leave the multicast group by just simply sending a request to leave one multicast group . [pic] Fig. 21. Standard IGMP Leave and Immediate Leave. The emerging IPTV deployments utilize Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) in order to deliver media content. Unlike UDP, RTP protocol can provide sequence numbers to maintain pac ket ordering and detect losses, and timing information to determine network delay and synchronize timing between senders and receivers. RTP control protocol maintains session state between senders and receivers and report sender and receiver statistics bi-directionally . The rapid acquisition is illustrated in the Fig 22 flow diagram below. [pic] Fig. 22. Rapid Acquisition Flow Diagram 1) The RTP receiver sends a Multicast Leave message to its upstream multicast router to leave the current multicast session and end the currently viewed channel. 2) The RTP receiver sends a feedback message to the feedback target asking for rapid acquisition for the session it wants to join. In this feedback message, the RTP receiver can specify its specific requirements. ) The retransmission server receives the feedback message and decides whether or not to accept the request. If the retransmission server accepts the request, it sends a message to the RTP receiver that describes the burst that the retransmission server will generate and send, including the indication when the RTP receiver should join the new multicast session. The unicast burst stream consists of retransmission of a specific block of packets which will allow the RTP receiver to begin displaying video without waiting for a certain random access point to arrive in the multicast flow. If the retransmission server denies the request, it informs the RTP receiver immediately. 4) If the retransmission server accepts the request, it transmits the unicast burst data and any additional message(s) needed to carry the key information about the new channel. The key information is used to prime the decoder inside the IPTV STB so that it can start decoding sooner. The unicast burst continues at a higher than natural rate until the unicast burst catches up with the real-time multicast flow. The sustainable burst rate depends on the access network link characteristics. ) At the appropriate moment (as indicated or computed from the burst parameters), the RTP receiver joins the new multicast session by sending a Multicast Join message to its upstream multicast router. 6) The RTP receiver starts receiving the multicast flow and completes the rapid acquisition. The STB will not join multicast session immediately with rapid acquisition since there would not be enough available left over on the access link. By utilizing unicast burst sent from the retransmission server o catch up with the multicast flow in a reasonable amount of time before joining to multicast group allows faster channel switching capability rather than joining multicast group immediately . Cloud Computing service in IPTV IPTV videos can be delivered to subscribers through various different network structures. For many years, Proxy servers have been utilized to decrease network traffic and delays through high speed and robust connection. Telco companies are looking for ways to keep service calls rejections to minimum through cloud service for on-demand IPTV service. Figure below shows on-demand IPTV service for cloud architecture. pic] Fig. 23. On-demand IPTV cloud services Video can be streamed from any of the virtual servers by load balancing among server and handle peak loads by avoid overload to achieve continuous, high utilization levels of servers. Virtual servers can provide low cos t computing resources. The Virtual server acts like a dedicated server but it co-reside on a single physical machines acting as multiple physical dedicated server. However, if too many virtual servers reside on the single physical machine, services may face problem due to scarce computing resource per virtual server. Virtual storage through cloud computing allow easy share of resources among themselves. Physical storage is virtualized into virtual disk, which allows storage consolidation across heterogeneous vendors and protocols, enabled by dynamically growing and shrinking of storage through live migration, in the enterprise storage area network to be used by applications . F uture application of IPTV The key to differentiating IPTV from traditional TV service of VOD and Network-based personal video record (nPVR) is the real-time interactive application and social TV. With FTTx or Gigabit Ethernet providing more bandwidth in broadband network allows new killer application to maximize the value of the IPTV service. A) SayUTV SayUTV service allows usersÃ¢â¬â¢ participation into TV sports, discussion, variety show, and so on. SayUTV allow mixing their video and sources into providerÃ¢â¬â¢s content to allow maximum interactive and customize IPTV content. The subscriber can click participation button on SayUTV GUI. After service provider or host of the content allows his/her participation, the subscriberÃ¢â¬â¢s audio and video content is mixed into programÃ¢â¬â¢s content. All the viewer of the content can view the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s image and voice. [pic] Fig. 26. SayUTV Service System Architecture SayUTV service divides the role of users into three major roles: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Controller Ã¢â¬â who creates a service session and has a control over that session. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Participants Ã¢â¬â who joins the session and contributes his/her own multimedia content. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Simple Viewer Ã¢â¬â who enjoys this service in a passive way [pic] Fig. 27. SayUTV Implementation. SayUTV is an advanced IPTV service, which combined with bidirectional multimedia communication technologies allowing interactive user-participation . B) IPTV Interactive Online Shopping In order for IPTV service provider to maximize the profit from IPTV service require smart ad insertion based on customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preference. TV series and sports media are well known for effective product advertisement aid. Apparels worn by a main actress of TV series or MVP sports athletes have greater potential for larger sales than conventional display by online shopping website. In order to provide customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shopping craving while watching TV series or sports event is to add additional information to the product description field such as TV series name, and character or athletes name. This will allow customers place some tags on that particular product through watching particular TV series or service provider can collect customersÃ¢â¬â¢ preference based on content and insert smart ad targeting each subscriber. [pic] Fig. 28. Shopperama Service Screen in Korea Shopperama is OTT provider in Korea providing series, which have broadcasted through a TV station, online along with smart ad insertion. The apparels worn by main actors and products inside the episode are displayed in a synchronized manner with video content as shown in Fig 25. This allows customer to shop for products very easily while watching TV series and reduce customerÃ¢â¬â¢s burden of trying to find particular product . To improve interactive online shopping with IPTV service still needs many enhancements to fully flourish in E-business model. Behavior targeting content to users is estimate to be 20 billion dollar industry and in order for IPTV interactive online shopping to gain market share requires smart integration of cross layer platforms. C) Final Remarks With IPTV service deployment, Cable Company is afraid of cord-cutting case. The IPTV service is gaining popularity amongst consumer and there are many opportunities for new killer application to integrate with IPTV service. In this paper, we described current IPTV architecture in the market and presented recent efforts to improve IPTV technology. Emerging IPTV mobile systems are also gaining a lot of attention and consumer trends demonstrate that IPTV will continue to be in demand. 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The case of mobile operators Nicolai Pogrebnyakov a,? , Carleen F. Maitland b a b Department of International Business and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg 2000, Denmark College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, United States. This paper applies the institutional lens to the internationalization process model. It updates the concept of psychic distance in the model with a recently developed, theoretically grounded construct of institutional distance. Institutions are considered simultaneously at the national and industry levels. It also aims to understand whether the internationalization process of service firms is different from the behavior predicted by the model, which was developed for the manufacturing context. We empirically test the model using proportional hazard analysis with 130 instances of entry and presence of mobile operators in Europe and South America over 13 years. In? uences of regulative, normative and cognitive institutional aspects were disaggregated and shown to have differing effect on internationalization. We will write a custom essay sample on Institutional Distance or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This suggests that institutional distance is a viable alternative to other distance measures used in the internationalization process research. The results also indicate that the internationalization behavior of this type of service The institutional perspective allows better understanding of how cultural beliefs, norms as well as formal rules in? uence the operation of organizations (Gooderham et al. , 1999). The mutual in? uences of institutions and organizations on one another have been systematically investigated (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983). Furthermore, the separation of institutions into different levels, including world, societal, organizational and individual, have led to a recognition of the differing in? uences of institutions at each of these levels on organizations and other types of actors (Scott, 1995). This paper has three objectives. First, it integrates the recently developed construct of institutional distance with insights from the internationalization process model. That construct has origins in institutional theory, which has been applied to many aspects of organizational behavior. Whether institutional distance affects behavior of internationalizing ? rms is as yet unclear. Second, it contributes to statistical studies of internationalization research. Qualitative methodology in this domain allows to gain insight of motives or decision-making processes involved in internationalization. By contrast, quantitative examinations allows understanding of the Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ and observe larger-scale patterns of internationalization. However, statistical studies have been somewhat underrepresented in favor of qualitative studies (Barkema et al. , 1996), and this paper is an attempt to bridge that gap. Finally, it aims to enhance our understanding of internationalization of service ? rms. Its theoretical foundation is the internationalization process model, which was developed for the manufacturing sector and applied to services with mixed results. In particular, it asks whether ? ms in the mobile telecommunications industry, with its end product that has global appeal and little cross-country variation, are subject to learning experience when entering foreign markets as predicted by the model. This objective is timely and important because it addresses calls for thorough research of internationalization of service ? rms, of which there have been few studies (Cicic et al. , 1999). To address these objectives, we construct a Cox proportional hazards regression model using data on 130 instances of foreign entry and presence of mobile operators in 36 countries of Europe and South America over 13 years. The study is set in the context of the mobile telecommunications industry. Mobile services have diffused across the globe faster than any previous technology (World Bank, 2008). Mobile telephony was used by over 60% of the worlds population in 2008, up from a quarter ? ve years before, and is projected to grow strongly despite the recent economic turmoil (International Telecommunications Union, 2009). However, while the use of mobile services is generally widespread, signi? cant differences in demand and supply exist. On the demand side, countries vary in their levels of adoption (e. . , 50% in Moldova compared with 94% in France in 2008) and patterns of use (e. g. , text messaging was until recently more widely used in Europe than in the United States). On the supply side, mobile operators are often national ? rms with investments from or in competition with foreign ? rms from a variety of countries. For example, in the U. S. , Verizon Wireless, a domestic ? rm, is in fact a joint v enture with the British ? rm Vodafone and competes against the German ? rm T-Mobile. The paper is structured as follows.